- Structure and mechanism of the ATP synthase rotor
The ATP synthase is a molecular rotor that recycles ADP into ATP. Leone and Faraldo-Gómez use structural modeling to reinterpret and reconcile recent cryo-EM data for its membrane domain with other experimental evidence, gaining insights into its mechanism and the mode of inhibition by oligomycin.
- Vesicle recycling in stellate astrocytic processes
Communication between astrocytes and neurons has been difficult to study because cultured astrocytes do not resemble those in vivo. Wolfes et al. develop a stellate astrocyte monoculture with physiological characteristics and find that VAMP2 and SYT7 mark distinct vesicle populations in astrocytes.
- Disrupted muscle maturation in Huntington’s disease
The R6/2 mouse model of Huntington’s disease exhibits reduced skeletal muscle ClC-1 currents. Miranda et al. investigate early stages of disease in these mice and find an early and progressive disruption of ClC-1 as well as altered muscle maturation based on myosin heavy chain isoform expression.
- Interfilament binding of tethered molecules
Models of cellular contraction, for example, in striated muscle, usually involve mass action kinetics. Mijailovich et al. implement spatially explicit actomyosin interactions in the Monte Carlo platform MUSICO and show the extent to which myosin tethering affects other biological parameters.
- Modeling convective flow in brain parenchyma
A “glymphatic system” has been proposed to mediate convective fluid transport from para-arterial to paravenous extracellular space in the brain. Jin et al. model such a system and find that diffusion, rather than convection, can account for the transport of solutes.
- Independent activation of TMEM16A subunits
The TMEM16 family contains dimeric membrane proteins activated by intracellular Ca2+. Realizing that lipid scramblase family members contain two independently activated subunits, Lim et al. use concatenated TMEM16A subunits to show that ion channel members contain two independently activated pores.
- Alcohol and BK channel gating
Large conductance K+ channels of the slo1 family are gated by Ca2+ and voltage and either inhibited or potentiated by ethanol. Kuntamallappanavar and Dopico analyze the effects of ethanol in detail and find that the absence or presence of β subunits leads to differential modification of channel gating parameters by intoxicating levels of ethanol.