Table 1. Targeting of organic biosensors to organelles: Strategies and most used presently available sensors
Organelle or compartmentTargeting strategyMeasured parameters
NucleusNLS, nuclear microinjectionCa2+ (Allbritton et al., 1994)
ERHydrophobicity, alkyl chainCa2+ (Hofer et al., 1998; Landolfi et al., 1998)
pH (Reddy G et al., 2015)
Cu2+ (Lee et al., 2014)
PM inner surfaceHydrophobic tailCa2+ (Vorndran et al., 1995)
membrane potential (González and Tsien, 1995; Peterka et al., 2011; St-Pierre et al., 2015)
Mitochondrial matrixMembrane potentialCa2+ (Hajnóczky et al., 1995)
Zn2+ (Masanta et al., 2011; Sreenath et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2012b; Chyan et al., 2014)
thiols (Lim et al., 2011)
H2O2 (Dickinson and Chang, 2008)
pH (Sarkar et al., 2016)
superoxide (Robinson et al., 2006)
membrane potential (Nicholls, 2012)
Acidic compartmentspH gradient, endocytosispH (Zhu et al., 2012; Miao et al., 2013; Lv et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015; Yapici et al., 2015)
thiols (Kand et al., 2015)
Ca2+ (Gilroy and Jones, 1992; Schlatterer et al., 1992)
vesicle recycling (Gaffield and Betz, 2007; Li et al., 2009)
neurotransmitter release (Gubernator et al., 2009)