Table 1. T2R-associated disorders and diseases
T2R typeAffected systemEffectsReference
T2R38Human upper respiratory systemT2R38 genotype is correlated with susceptibility, severity, and prognosis of chronic rhinosinusitis, as well as biofilm formation in chronic rhinosinusitis patientsLee et al., 2012; Lee and Cohen, 2013; Adappa et al., 2014, 2016a,b,c
Human colorectal cancerT2R38 nonfunctional group has an increased risk of colorectal cancer in a population of Caucasian originCarrai et al., 2011
Human gingivaT2R38 genotype is associated with gingival innate immunity and the risk of dental cariesWendell et al., 2010; Gil et al., 2015
Human colonic mucosaIncreased number of T2R38 immunoreactive cells in overweight and obese subjectsLatorre et al., 2016
T2R19Blood glucoseT2R19 haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasisDotson et al., 2008
T2R50Human heartT2R50 SNPs (ID rs1376251) have a strong association with cardiovascular diseaseShiffman et al., 2008
T2R42ThyroidThyroid-expressed T2R42 SNP (SNP type L196F) is associated with differences in circulating levels of thyroid hormonesClark et al., 2015
T2R16LongevityAn upstream position polymorphism of T2R16 is significantly associated with longevityCampa et al., 2012
T2RsHuman leukocytes10 T2Rs are up-regulated in leukocytes in severe asthma patientsOrsmark-Pietras et al., 2013
T2RsHuman Parkinson’s disease patients’ brainsT2R5 and T2R50 are decreased, whereas T2R10 and T2R13 are augmented at both premotor and parkinsonian stages in the frontal cortex areaGarcia-Esparcia et al., 2013
Human schizophrenia patients’ brainsT2R4, T2R5, T2R14, and T2R50 are down-regulated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortexAnsoleaga et al., 2015
T2R4Human breast cancerT2R4 is down-regulated in breast cancer cellsSingh et al., 2014
T2R105Mouse testesDepletion of T2R105 results in smaller testes and leads to male infertilityLi and Zhou, 2012
Mouse glomerulus and renal tubuleAblation of T2R105-positive cells causes an increase in the size of the glomerulus and renal tubule and a lower cell density in the glomerulusLiu et al., 2015
T2R126, T2R135, and T2R143Mouse heartStarvation increases the expression of these T2Rs by two- to threefoldFoster et al., 2013